Classification
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The vertebrate family of PTPs groups into 17 principal subtypes

Schematic representation of human PTP family members. The 17 subtypes are defined based on PTP domain sequence similarity (see phylogenetic analysis below).

Enzymes with closely related PTP domains also tend to be similar in their overall structural topology.

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Classification of the vertebrate family of PTPs into 9 Nontransmembrane (NT) and 8 Receptor-like subtypes (R)

Homology tree comprising 135 PTP catalytic domains. The clustering of sequences into divergent branches of this phylogram provides the basis for subdivision of the PTP family into 17 subtypes. As a statistical test of the significance of sequence similarity within each subtype, boostrap values are shown at the dendogram nodes.

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Classification of PTPs in human, fly and worm

This schematic representation of orthologous relationships among PTP family members in human, fly and worm is based on PTP domain amino acid sequence homology, reciprocal best BLAST hits, and overall structural similarity of the full-length proteins. Worm PTP sequences that lack orthologs in human or fly have been omitted. (See Andersen et al. Methods 2005 for details).

Note that PTPs having closely-related catalytic domains also tend to be similar in their overall structural topology.

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Classification of human, fly and worm PTPs by phylogenetic analysis.

Unrooted neighbor-joining tree generated by ClustalX and visualized with TreeView. The horizontal distance indicates degree of sequence divergence. The 17 principal PTP domain subtypes present in vertebrates are labeled NT1-NT9 (for non-transmembrane) and R1-R8 (for receptor-like) enzymes. Bootstrap values are indicated at the dendogram node (maximum value 1000) highlighting significant cluster of homologous sequences. Fly and worm PTPs with no clear human orthologs are indicated (arrow).

An interactive classification system for assigning PTP domain subtypes are available in our bioinformatics tool section.

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Phylogenetic analysis of membrane distal PTP Domains D2 from RPTPs

Homology tree comprising 195 vertebrate PTP domains including 60 PTP Domain D2 sequences. 

Note, that the Domain D2 sequences define their own ‘supertype’.

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Evolutionary relationship among human PTP domains

Homology tree of human PTPs and annotation of each subtype. This phylogram includes human PTP Domain D2 sequences.

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